When Does One Need a Kidney Transplant?

Imagine the condition of a human body if it is filled with toxins. What happens, then? The body will suffer and the person will eventually die. To prevent this fatality, humans have kidneys. They filter about 1-1.5 liters of blood every hour and about 200 liters of fluids in 24 hours. The toxins are removed from the blood and are transformed into urine.

According to Dr. Niren Rao of Delhi Urology Hospital, who provides the best Kidney Transplant in Delhi, kidneys play a vital role in a person’s life. They are responsible for eliminating body waste in the urine. However, due to certain conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes, kidneys start functioning abnormally. When the malfunctioning becomes out of control, it leads to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). In this case, patients start holding the fluid and toxins within their bodies, and initially, they have to go for dialysis. Eventually, a kidney transplant becomes their ultimate treatment.

What is a Kidney Disease?

Kidney disease is when the patient’s kidneys are damaged and can’t filter the blood any longer. Kidney transplants and dialysis are the only treatment left. In other words, kidneys lose their filtering capacity due to many diseases. Accumulation of these products inside the body becomes life-threatening and hence demand a treatment.

What Causes End-Stage Kidney Disease?

  1. Diabetes - Diabetes is the most prevalent cause of renal failure throughout the globe. High blood sugar levels harm the filters in the kidneys over a long period. The ultimate stage of kidney failure is the outcome, which is chronic kidney disease (also known as diabetic nephropathy).

  2. High Blood Pressure (hypertension) - Chronic, permanent damage to the kidneys' small blood capillaries due to hypertension results in renal disease.

  3. Glomerulonephritis - Slow damage and scarring are caused by inflammation of the blood vessels and other nephron-related tissues. The immune system may mistake the kidney for a foreign entity and attack it in people with autoimmune illnesses, including lupus and ANCA vasculitis.

  4. Interstitial Nephritis: This kidney condition resembles an allergic response. Chronic kidney disease can be brought on by some drugs or herbal remedies, generating inflammation in the interstitial compartment.

  5. Renal Artery Stenosis: Over time, the arteries that provide blood to the kidneys develop blockages. Several large cysts or hollow spaces develop within the kidney due to the genetic disorder known as polycystic kidney disease, which makes it difficult for the kidney to function normally.

  6. Congenital Issues- It starts before birth and shows up when the kidneys lose more than 90% of their capacity to function.

What is Kidney Transplant?

A kidney transplant is an invasive procedure and must be undertaken by a well-qualified and experienced urologist like Dr. Niren Rao, the Best Urologist in Delhi. In this procedure, a kidney in good condition is transplanted into the recipient’s body. The kidney is placed into the lower abdomen and connected to the recipient’s urinary tract and blood vessels.

The procedure may take several hours, and the patient may require medications as prescribed by the doctor to prevent kidney rejection.

Why is Kidney Transplant Done?

Compared to lifetime dialysis, a kidney transplant is a more viable treatment. A kidney transplant can treat chronic kidney disease to help the patient feel better.

  1. Enhanced quality of life.

  2. Low chances of death.

  3. Less dietary constraints.

  4. More economical.

Sometimes, patients don’t have to go through dialysis when they get a kidney transplant. However, in certain cases, some people may not be a suitable candidate for this transplant, such as people with:

  1. Old age

  2. Heart disease

  3. Recently treated or active heart disease.

  4. Unstable mental condition or dementia.

  5. Drug or alcohol abuse.

  6. Anything else that could make it more difficult to complete the surgery properly

What to Expect Before the Surgery?

The kidney donor can be alive or deceased. It can be someone related to the patient by blood, or it can be a friend. To determine if the person is a good match, the following tests can be conducted:

  1. Blood Typing: When choosing a donor for a kidney transplant, it is preferable if their blood types match or are compatible. However, the transplant can still be done even if the donor and recipient have different blood types. Additional medical treatments would be needed both before and after the operation to reduce the likelihood of organ rejection.

  2. Tissue Typing: The HLA tissue typing test, which evaluates genetic markers to improve the likelihood of a long-lasting transplant once a suitable blood type has been determined, is the next stage in examining kidney transplants. Successful tissue matching lowers the chance that the recipient's body may reject the donated organ.

  3. Crossmatch: The last matching test is a crossmatch, which involves mixing a tiny amount of recipient and donor blood to look for any antibody responses. Indicating compatibility with a negative crossmatch reduces the likelihood of rejection. A successful transplant is still possible despite a positive crossmatch if additional medical measures are taken before and after the surgery to stop antibody responses.

Kidney Transplant Procedure

  1. The surgeon administers general anesthesia so the patient stays asleep throughout the procedure.

  2. The surgical team monitors the patient’s heart rate, oxygen levels and blood pressure during the procedure.

  3. The surgeon cuts into the lower abdomen and adjusts a new kidney there.

  4. The new kidney's blood vessels are attached to the blood vessels in the lower abdomen.

  5. The new kidney’s ureter is connected to the bladder.

What to Expect After the Procedure?

  1. Patients should spend a week or more in the hospital.

  2. In the hospital's transplant recovery area, the medical team keeps an eye on their condition to look for any complications.

  3. New kidneys, too, will produce urine.

  4. This frequently starts right away. It can take a few days in some patients, and one might require interim dialysis while they wait for their replacement kidneys to start functioning normally.

  5. While the patients heal, they can anticipate soreness or pain near the incision site.

  6. Within eight weeks of transplantation, most kidney transplant recipients can resume their routine, including work.

  7. Until the wound has healed (typically about six weeks after surgery), avoid lifting anything heavier than 10 pounds and exercising other than walking.

Those seeking a kidney transplant in Delhi can visit Dr. Niren Rao at Delhi Urology Hospital. The AIMS-trained Urologist has an experience of almost two decades. His dedication, precision, and high professionalism have made him the best Urologist.

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Delhi Urology Hospital

Dr. Niren Rao is one of the best urologists in Delhi, India. He has more than 10 years of experience treating prostate cancer, kidney stones, bladder stones, and other urological conditions at his Delhi Urology Hospital.